List of National Symbols of India

India, a country with an oldest civilization,  largest democracy and diverse cultures in each states, known to have unique identity.

The national symbols of India represents intrinsic value of our country and heritage. They are chosen from the diverse options available to government but at the same time they represents the unity of nation.

The specimen is chosen carefully and every chosen representative paints a specific virtue that is unique.

Modern India has a number of national symbols like the flag, anthem, emblem, etc. all these symbols were chosen at different times.

The design of our national flag was officially chosen by the constituent Assembly 21 days before Independence in 1947. There many many other patriotic symbols as well as the national animal, bird, flower, etc.

These are meticulously chosen to project the image of our country. These symbols reflect the diverse Indian culture and the positive characteristics linked with Indian traditions.

In short, national symbols of India represent a number of objects that portray a unique identity about India’s sensibilities.

In this article, we will discuss national symbols of India. We will see the history behind them, its meaning and other important aspect of each.

List of All National Symbols of India

National FlagTiraṅgā
National AnthemJana Gana Mana
National MarchVande Mataram
National EmblemLion Capital of Ashoka
National BirdIndian peacock
National AnimalMagnificent tiger
National FlowerLotus
National TreeIndian fig tree
National Currency Symbol ₹
National CalendarSaka Calendar
National RiverGanges
National FruitMango
National Aquatic AnimalGanges River Dolphin
National MottoSatyameva Jayate
National AirlineAir India
National VegetableIndian Pumkin
National BeverageLassi
National SweetLaddu
National AnimalIndian Elephant

National Flag – Tiranga

Tricolour flag of India

The national flag of India is called as Tiranga, which mean tricolour.

It is a horizontal, rectangle shaped flag and has three different colors in equal proportion.  Saffron color at top, white at middle and green at the bottom. The width:length ration of flag is 2:3.

The center of white colored band has a navy-blue colored wheel which represents the chakra. The navy-blue wheel has 24 spokes and its diameter equivalent to the width of white band.

  • Indian national flag discovered during the national struggle of freedom
  • The Constituent Assembly of India adopted the design of National flag on 22 July 1947
  • It went through various changes.

The colors of National flag represents different meaning. Topmost saffron color indicates the strength & courage of country.

The white color band represents the peace & truth with Dharma CHakra while the green colour indicates the fertility, growth and auspiciousness of the land of India.

Name of flag – Tiraṅgā (meaning “Tricolour”)
Use – National flag
Proportion – 2:3
Adopted on – 22 July 1947
Design – A horizontal triband of India saffron, white, and India green; charged with a navy blue wheel with 24 spokes in the center
Designed by – Pingali Venkayya

National Anthem – Jana Gana Mana

जनगणमन अधिनायक जय हे, भारतभाग्यविधाता।
पंजाब सिंध गुजरात मराठा, द्राविड़ उत्कल बंग।
विंध्य हिमाचल यमुना गंगा, उच्छल जलधि तरंग।
तव शुभ नामे जागे, तव शुभ आशिष मागे।
गाहे तव जयगाथा।
जनगणमंगलदायक जय हे, भारतभाग्यविधाता।
जय हे, जय हे, जय हे, जय जय जय जय हे॥

The National Anthem of India is the most liked song that is played at various occasions throughout the country.

The Government of India has issued instructions about the right version of the National Anthem, the occasions it needs to be played on, and the need for paying the right respects by observing the right behavior on these occasions.

Lyrics – Rabindranath Tagore, 1911
Music – Rabindranath Tagore, 1911
Adopted on – 24 January 1950

National Song – Vande Mataram

वन्दे मातरम्।
सुजलाम् सुफलाम्
मलयज शीतलाम्
वन्दे मातरम्।

सुमधुर भाषिणीम्
सुखदाम् वरदाम्
वन्दे मातरम्।

The National song Vande Mataram was composed by Bankimchandra Chatterji in Sanskrit. The song was an inspiration to the people in the struggle for freedom.

Our National Song has the same status as our National Anthem. A session of the Indian National Congress was the first time the song was sung at a political occasion.

State Emblem – Lion Capital of Ashoka

State Emblem of India - Lion Capital of Ashoka

The state emblem is adopted from the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka. The state emblem was adopted on 26th January 1950.

In the original emblem, there are four lions standing back to back and in the one adopted by the Government of India, there are three lions that are visible and the fourth one is hidden.

At the bottom of the lions are the wheel in the center and a bull on the right and horse on the left. ‘Satyameva Jayate’ meaning ‘Truth Alone Triumphs’ is inscribed under the abacus.

National bird – Indian Peacock

Indian Peacock

The Indian peacock is the national bird of India. It is colorful, swan sized, with the fan-shaped comb of feathers, a long neck, and a white patch below the eye.

The male specie of peacock is more powerful than the female specie and has around 200 longitude feathers. The female specie is brownish a little smaller than the mail one and lacks a tail. The Peacock dance is a wonderful sight and you are considered lucky if you have witnessed it.

National Animal – Magnificent Tiger

Bengal Tiger

As you all know, the magnificent tiger has a thick yellow coat of fur and dark stripes on it. Grace, agility, strength, and power has earned the animal its dignity as the national animal of India.

To save the dwindling population of this powerful giant animal, ‘Project Tiger’ was launched in April 1973. There are currently 50 tiger reserves in the entire country and close 3000 tigers, as in June 2020.

National flower – Lotus

Pink Lotus Flower

Lotus is a sacred flower and has a special position in art and mythology of ancient India. It is even an auspicious symbol of the Indian culture since time-worn.

Our country holds a rich variety of flora. At present (as in June 2020), India ranks at the fourth position in Asia and tenth position in the world in plant diversity. Currently, India has over 15000 species of flowering plants which account for a little over 6% of the total plant species in the world.

National Identity Elements of India

National currency symbol – Rupee ₹

National Currency Symbol of India

The symbol of the Indian Rupee depicts India’s international identity For financial Deals And Economic Strength.

In the past, the symbol of Indian Rupees was Rs and now it is ₹. This new symbol was designed by Udhya Kumar Dharmalingam. His design was the one selected from the top five shortlisted symbols.

The Ministry of Finance run an open contest amongst the residents of India and had accumulated thousands of entries. This new symbol was presented to the public on 15th July 2010 by the Government of India.

The symbol is the amalgamation of Devanagari ‘Ra’ and Roman capital ‘R’ with two parallel horizontal lines at the top. These lines represent the national flag of India.

National tree – The Indian fig tree

Banyan Tree National Tree of India

The Indian fig tree is the tree whose branches root out like new trees over a huge area. The roots grow more branches and trunks.

This is the main feature along with its longevity, which made it immortal and an important part of legends as well as myths in India.

Even in the 21st century, the Banyan tree is an important point of village life and is the place where the village council meets.

Common name: Indian fig tree
Scientific name: Ficus bengalensis
Symbolize: ‘Kalpa Vriksha’ or the ‘Tree of Wish Fullfillment’ & logetivity

National calendar – Saka calendar

Our national calendar is based on the Saka Era, having Chaitra as the first month. It has a regular year of 365 days that was taken into consideration from 22nd March 1957 with the Gregorian calendar for the below-mentioned purposes:

  • Gazette of India
  • Calendars issued by the Government of India
  • Government communications that are addressed to the people of India
  • News broadcast by the All India Radio

The dates of the national calendar have a perpetual correspondence with the dates of the Gregorian calendar like 1 Chaitra falling on the 22nd March in a normal year and on 21st March in a leap year.

National river – Ganges

Ganges River in India
Via- juggadery

The Ganga is a cross border river of South Asia that flows through two countries – India and Bangladesh.

The river is 2,601 kilometres long and originates from the Indian state of Uttarakhand from the Gangotri glacier of western Himalayas. The river then flows east and south through the Gangetic Plain of India and Bangladesh. It then empties into the Bay of Bengal.

The Ganga provides water to millions of people who live along the course. It is worshipped by the people as the goddess Ganga in the Hindu religion.

National fruit – Mango

Mango is known as the king of fruits in India. It is most commonly known as ‘Aam’ in India.

It is widely loved to be eaten. It is a fleshy fruit, that needs to be eaten ripe, and when green, it is used for pickles. It’s juicy and power-packed with Vimains A, D, and C.

Our country cultivates over 100 varieties of mangoes, in a different color, size, and shape. Mangoes are available for consumption from late February to early September.

Also Read: Know Which are the Biggest & Longest Bridges in India

National aquatic animal – Ganges River Dolphin

The south Asian rive Dolphine is a threatened freshwater dolphin that is found in the Indian subcontinent. These are split into 2 subspecies, the Indus river dolphin and the Ganges river dolphin.

The Ganges river dolphins are found in the Brahmaputra and Ganges rivers, having branches in India, Nepal, and Bangladesh.

From the 1970s to 1998, the Ganges river dolphin and Indus river dolphins were considered as different species, but in 1998, they were classified as subspecies of the same species.

National vegetable – Indian pumpkin

The national vegetable of India ‘Indian Pumpkin’ is the one that is consumed to a large extent throughout the country. Indian pumpkin is commonly known as ‘Kaddu’ in our country.

The Indian pumpkin looks exactly like the regular pumpkin but tastes like the butternut squash. The commonly made dish using Indian pumpkin is ‘meetha kaddu’.

National heritage animal – Indian elephant

On October 22, 2010, India declares elephants as the national heritage animal to conserve the species and protect it from dwindling.

India is the home to more than 50% Asian elephants, making is essential for saving the animal. Currently, as of June 2020, there are a little over 27,000 elephants left in the wild, which is a very shameful thing because there were a million in the 90s.

National beverage – Lassi

Lassi is a cold and refreshing drink made out of traditional Dahi/yogurt that originated in Punjab and is super popular in the northern part of India.
Lassi is a blend of dahi, water, spices (if spicy)/sugar (if sweet) and fruit, sometimes. Sweet lassis are extremely popular all over the country. Salty lassi is similar is buttermilk, which is of a thinner consistency.

National sweet – Laddu

Laddu is known as the mother of all sweets in India. It is a round sweet from the Indian subcontinent. The name Laddu originated from the word Lattika in Sanskrit.

This super delicious sweet ball is made from flour, ghee/oil/butter, and sugar. Many people in the country also add a few nuts and raisins to it. The ingredients used differ from recipe to recipe. Laddus are served during religious ceremonies and festivities.

Gond laddus are rich in calcium, magnesium, and protein and they strengthen bones. This is what makes them ‘medicinal’ in Ayurveda.

National dish – Khichdi

Khichdi was given it long due respect by naming it the national dish of India in 2017. It is made os rice and lentils. There are multiple variations of khichdi like mung dal and bajra khichdi, masala khichdi, etc.

Sabudana khichdi is one of its variety and is eaten by people who are fasting. Most regions in India cook khichdi in their own way.

National airline – Air India

Air India was previously known as a Tata Airlines before 1962 and was founded by the maestro – J.R.D Tata. On 8th June 1962 (after world war II), the airline’s name was changed to Air India.

Air India was the world’s first all-jet airline. It is a government-owned airline having a fleet of Airbus and Boeing. The airline serves over 60 international destinations across four continents.

National reptile – King cobra

The Indian culture, philosophy, and religion give king cobra a noteworthy aspect and perspective. It is the national reptile of India because it is associated with Lord Shiva’ ornament. It is also seen by many as the Demi-God.

King cobra is found in the forests of India and Southeast Asia. It is the longest venomous snake in the world which can grow up to 19 ft and also live for as long as 25 years.

National microbe – Lactobacillus Bulgaricus

The national microbe of India is the Lactobacillus Bulgarius which is used in the formation of yogurt.

It is originally found in the gastrointestinal tract of the mammals living in Bulgaria. Most countries make this microbe artificially.


Many of you, just like us, would not have known it all about the national symbols and elements of our country apart from the basic ones like the national flag, national animal, bird, etc.

This is why we have written this article to help you all understand in brief about all the national symbols and elements of our country. We intend to reach out to all children and adults to know more about our own country.

We request you to teach your child about the national symbols and elements of India in their childhood so that they know how diverse and rich in culture is our motherland. Jai Hind!